Tampa, Fla., (June 18, 2019) – The National Association of Underwater Instructors
(NAUI Worldwide) is pleased to announce that the Green Diver Board of Directors
has made recent updates and revisions to the Green Diver Initiative’s (GDI)
mission and purpose. To lead this new undertaking and to implement the
strategic plan in all of Green Diver’s operations, the GDI Board has brought on
After the 10-week strategic
planning process, GDI’s new aim now focuses its attention on promoting
conservation through education, partnerships and activities focused on
environmental stewardship. This updated strategic vision evokes a world with
clean, healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. The strategic plan comes
with goals of education, awareness, environmental change and self-sustainment.
After consulting on the
strategic planning process, Maria Lewis was selected to take the role of
Executive Director for Green Diver Initiative.
“I am very excited to be a
part of the rebirth of the Green Diver Initiative,” said Lewis. Lewis has worked
in nonprofit management and fundraising for more than 25 years. She
is a Certified Nonprofit Professional and a Certified
“Although Green Diver
educates through digital and print communications, both NAUI and the GDI Board
recognize the urgency for an immediate, more proactive approach in aiding
underwater and coastal environments,” said Lewis.
Because education leads to
proactive choices on preserving and conserving the underwater environment, one
of Green Diver’s leading priorities continues to be education. Going forward,
individuals can expect the initiative to primarily be involved in awareness
campaigns that promote clean underwater environments. To enforce this strategy,
the initiative’s objective is to collaborate with other organizations to help
spread communications on these issues.
The second primary issue that
GDI executives aim to focus on is the reduction of negative human impact on the
aquatic environment. GDI will remain involved in providing support for clean-up
efforts locally and globally. In doing so, the initiative plans to partner with
other organizations on projects that affect these environments.
Since the establishment of
this new venture and with support and sponsorship from NAUI Worldwide and NAUI
Services Group, executives have already set forth endeavors to expand and grow
the program with 3rd-party Green Diver alliances.
GDI immediately formed relationships
with Force Blue, the Sea Turtle Conservancy, and Oceana to promote rescue, restoration
and preservation of coral reefs; the protection of sea turtles and their
habitats; and endorsement for the elimination of shark finning (referencing
Shark Fin Sales Elimination Act [S.877]).
Nature is all about connections; one thing is related to another,
and they seemingly work together in harmony, but when artificial connections
are made, whether induced by human activity or naturally occurring, it is often
times not for the better. This is another story about connections.
By Bonnie McKenna
Dead zones are found all around the world. Some are naturally
occurring, but they are primarily the result of agricultural and industrial
activity spilling nutrients into the water. Other culprits are sewage,
vehicular, and industrial emissions. It is estimated that there are about 500
dead zones worldwide. Many are seasonable but no less important to the health
of lakes and oceans.
Hypoxia, eutrophication, algae, and anthropogenic are not
your common everyday words, but all related to what is called a Dead Zone.
Dead Zones are areas of low oxygen in the world’s oceans and
lakes; they are hypoxic. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Association (NOAA), these areas are caused by, “excessive nutrient pollution
from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen
required to support most marine life in the bottom or near-bottom water.”
Eutrophication of lakes or oceans is caused by an increase in
nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. These chemicals are the building
blocks of single-celled, plant-like organisms or phytoplankton. A rapid
increase in the density of these organisms is called an algal bloom, often referred
to as a red or brown tide.
There are several groups of algae: Cyanobacteria, green
algae, dinoflagellates, Coccolithophores, and Diatom algae. With an increase in
nitrogen and phosphates entering the water Cyanobacteria blooms and the other
algae are consumed. Algae blooms prevent light from penetrating the surface of
the water and it prevents oxygen from being absorbed by the organisms living
beneath. Human illnesses are also related to algae as shellfish and other
filter feeders absorb microbes associated with algal blooms and many of those
microbes are toxic to humans.
Anthropogenic, a recently coined word that simply means caused by or influenced by humans. Use
of chemical fertilizers is considered the major human-related cause of dead
zones. Sewage, urban land use, overpopulation and fertilizers contribute to the
formation or add to dead zones.
Dead zones are
classified by the length of their occurrence:
dead zones: deep water occurrences in the benthic zone where the oxygen level is
usually below 2mg/L.
dead zones: short lived, lasting hours or days.
dead zones: annually occurring, typically in warm months.
hypoxia: specific seasonal dead zone occurring only at night.
There are also natural
dead zones caused by changes in wind, water circulation and upwellings. Areas in
the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean have low oxygen concentrations that are believed
to be caused by minimal circulation that does not replace the oxygen that is
Where are the major dead
The Baltic Sea is home
to seven of the 10 largest dead zones in the world. Recently, the area has been targeted by the
European Union as a ‘macro-region’ to combat pollution, dead zones,
overfishing, and regional disputes. Eight EU countries border the Baltic Sea
(Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and
Overfishing of the Baltic cod, runoff
from fertilizers and sewers are the significant contributors to the decline of
the region’s fishing industry. Speaking of connections: Baltic cod eat sprats,
sprats eat algae. Fewer cod resulted in more sprats, and more sprats meant more
algae and less oxygen = a dead zone.
The Gulf of Mexico dead zone
is the largest in the United States; the size is seasonal-dependent. NOAA
scientists predict that this year’s forecasted dead zone, due to flooding of
the Missouri River Basin and Mississippi could be 50% larger than average. May
2019 was the wettest 12 months in U.S. history.
as early as the 1950 shrimpers reported a dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico, but
it was not until 1970 that scientists began investigating why the dead zone was
increasing in size.
formation of the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico has been connected to the
conversion of vast forests for agriculture use, in the Missouri River Basin and
the Lower Mississippi, between 1950 and 1976. The Energy Independence and
Security Act of 2007, calls for energy independence by 2022. To meet the
mandated requirements of the energy independence programs necessitates an
increase in corn production. This, in turn, leads to a proportional increase in
agro-fertilizer runoff and nitrogen loading of the dead zone at the mouth of
the Mississippi. The result is twice the level recommended by the Mississippi
River Watershed Conservation Program.
Dead zones in the U.S.
are the Chesapeake Bay; Elizabeth River, Virginia; Lake Erie; Cape Perpetua, Oregon,
and the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary. Worldwide, dead zones are found in the
Baltic Sea, the coastlines of Japan, Korea, Great Britain, Australia, South,
and Central America.
A large oxygen-derived
region found in the Gulf of Oman is suspected to be the largest in the world,
but due to political instability and threats of ocean piracy; ocean researchers
have only just returned. A study by Bastien Queste, a research fellow with the
University of East Anglia in England, found that the dead zone had expanded
beyond all predictive computer models.
Effect of dead zones
These dead zones have
quadrupled since 1950. It foretells of dire consequences to the millions of
people who depend on lakes and oceans. Lakes and oceans provide food for an
estimated 500 million people worldwide and provide jobs for another 350 million
people. The socio-economic/monetary effect of coastal dead zones and a decline
in oxygen in the open ocean is truly difficult to estimate. Most aquatic
critters cannot survive, and it could lead to mass extinction. Fish can flee
the potential of suffocation unless rendered unconscious; bottom dwellers like
clams and oysters are unable to escape, even colonial animals are doomed. Low
oxygen levels also lead to reproductive problems, low egg counts and lack of
Dead zones are
“This is a problem we
can solve,” said Denise Breitburg, at the Smithsonian Environmental Research
Center in June 2019, “halting climate change requires a global effort; even
local actions can help with nutrient-driven oxygen decline.”
The best example of recovery is what
occurred in the Black Sea in the 1990s after the fall of the Soviet Union. The
cost of fertilizers became too costly to use resulting in a drop in an out of
control use of fertilizers. The dead zone in the Black Sea, previously the
largest, has now diminished to a point that fishing has once again become an
economic activity in the region.
Cleanups are occurring
around the world. Since 1985, the North Sea dead zone has been reduced by as
much as 37%, countries along the Rhine River have reduced industrial, and
sewage emissions, the Hudson River and San Francisco Bay are also working to
reduce dead zones.
Dead zones are
reversible, but unfortunately, organisms that are lost due to its presence are
S.O.L.O.’s dedication to protecting delicate leatherback sea
turtles and their fragile environments took root in 2003 when photographer Dr.
Larry McKenna learned of the creatures’ plight: its species was on the brink of
extinction. These animals are equally monstrous in size as they are majestic in
appearance with males exceeding 16 feet in length and weighing in at over 3,000
pounds – originating from a small egg about three inches long.
“They’re an amazing throwback to the Jurassic period,” says
McKenna. “Should you have the good fortune to interact with one, you have
touched a real dinosaur.”
McKenna became enamored by the leatherback sea turtles with
their primordial appeal and mammoth stature and decided to capture them on
film. Alongside a cadre of scuba explorers, McKenna ventured to a remote beach
in Eastern Indonesia; and after a few travel setbacks, witnessed female turtles
nesting at night. This was an eye-opening event for McKenna, and by next
morning, he was approached by the village chief who asked him if anything could
be done to save and safeguard the critically endangered species.
“They told us that in the older days the nesting beach was
filled with so many turtles you couldn’t see the sand; but now there were just
a few coming out. I told him I was there to take pictures, but I would go back
and do some research – I figured it would be an adventure for me (I love
adventures). There wasn’t even a photograph shown in the data – the Internet,
anywhere – at that time.
“We did the research on our own through volunteering and had
no guidebook to take us. We experimented and found a way to reverse extinction.
We put our findings to work; and now, that many years later, the hatchlings
have come out and they’re now big enough to lay eggs. It’s been a regeneration
of the population.”
McKenna established S.O.L.O. as a 501(c)(3) non-profit
organization and primarily managed its daily operations. Today, four directors
govern the operation, including McKenna, his wife Bonnie, Dr. Mike Miller and
Having succeeded in this vital mission, McKenna and company
set their sights on a different, though related, goal: safeguarding the world’s
oceans from trash. Like the catalyst that activated S.O.L.O., this new venture
started small and grew exponentially.
“We took on the trash tossers in the ocean, which is
happening worldwide: in some places, the trash is so thick you can’t see the
water. We started taking on different areas in the country and set up a
research station in the Philippine islands. We did some healthy work cleaning
up the waters; and then somebody alerted me. Did I know what a gyre was?
“I never heard the word. There was a chuckle, and they said
I had better find out. I found some data on the Internet, and it was a stunning
shock: it revealed that over 50 to 55 years, people from all over had been
routinely tossing their trash, garbage, and runoff into the streets, rivers,
and creeks. Somehow it all worked its way into waterways and wound up in the ocean.
The prevalent belief was that we threw it in the ocean and didn’t need to see
it because we couldn’t; I was part of that population.
“We did some more research, and thanks to the help of NASA
satellites, we got a handle on what this was. A gyre is the effect of ocean
currents picking up the junk until it reaches a location where the currents
come down to practically zero – aided by an enormous mound of trash that has
been tossed away.
“There are now five of these gyres in our oceans. The
nearest one to America is the Great Pacific Gyre: its eastern-most part has an
area mass of approximately the size of Alaska: 6,750,001,595,000,000 cubic
feet. This mass collection of our throwaways is about 50 feet deep. It’s
heading towards the west coast of America and Canada. Only one intrepid Dutchman is using his own money to tackle the problem
and we wish him well. As of now, there is no effort of size and quantity to
solve this issue. “
“It’s going to be more expensive than S.O.L.O. because of what we have to do:
put together workable equipment on a ship, freighter or barges, to go into the
Pacific well beyond the 200-mile limit and start to process this mass of trash.
We’ve designed flexible scoops that can go down 50 or 60 feet, drag the stuff
onto the sink, let it sun dry, then put it through a combustion process with a
recyclable steam engine, which powers the turbine. It’s free regeneration as
long as the engine is working; we intend to leave no carbon footprint. Plastics
from this mess will be separated from wood and paper, bailed up, and sent to
the States to be recycled.
“Funds permitting, we’ll rent a building and bulkhead at the
Houston ship channel and will assemble a prototype, transfer it to a barge, and
take it into the ocean to get it working the right way. Again, subject to
funding, we will equip a rented freighter, and after putting this stuff
together, it will determine the size of what we need in the ocean: that it can
do the job and is safe enough in case storms come by. Subject to the prototype
working and more funds available, we’ll look at maybe six ships.”
“The first step is to educate our people to stop throwing
trash on the street. It’s so very important. Like the speeches I’ve given on
leatherback turtles, I’ve educated school kids from grades four to 10 about
going home and telling mom and dad to stop throwing that stuff in the street. I
can demonstrate that education works, and we need volunteers to go around and
do the same. I’m hoping to get corporate America to join in and have this
spread through the country. If we can put the trash in a bin, this will help
“A white Styrofoam cup takes centuries to decay. Dolphins
and porpoises put their snouts into a plastic bag, and they can’t get it off
their nose, and therefore can’t eat; big turtles like leatherbacks will think a
piece of plastic or a net is a jellyfish (their primary food supply) and will
die and wash up on shore. Off the west coast of Florida, staghorn corals
protect against ocean surges, and those reefs, before your eyes, are being
killed every day; and the reef protection has been destroyed. The staghorn can
be repopulated, but it takes an effort, volunteers, associated money to reseed
the beds… and if someone like us doesn’t jump in with support, those reefs
aren’t going to regenerate, and the next big storm will probably damage [the
“What else are we doing to our environment? We’re ruining
the nest we were born in, and that’s the key message: we’ve got to stop doing
that. We’re all a part of this. Everyone that’s breathing air is the cause of
this pollution that’s coming at us. It didn’t disappear; it’s out there waiting
to get its revenge.”
In a recent partnership, McKenna has received support from Lonestar
College near his residence, Kingwood, Texas. The college’s graphic design
department has assembled a team of five students who are eager to help promote
ocean protection and stewardship via the production of motivational and
marketing materials, including a pamphlet, PowerPoint presentation, and
NOAA and McKenna predict the Pacific gyre could end up on
the West Coast within seven to eight years. He shares a warning:
“To people who live out there: as the gyre approaches, don’t
go out and buy a new bikini because you won’t be able to use the beaches. The
beaches will be fouled to such a degree a backhoe won’t clean it up. If it
comes ashore, it won’t just be west coast residents, it’ll be the entire country
impacted in so many ways. We – all of us – did it to ourselves and are still
“A solution won’t happen overnight but once we get
everything working and given a decent chance at weather and other ocean
conditions… you can’t put your head in the sand because those things are out
there,” he continues. “It’s going to be like building blocks, and we may need
to put two or three ships to neutralize the Greater Pacific Gyre.”
“We’re open to partnerships and workable associations. We
aren’t going to do this alone. We’re pushing it because we know the severity of
the issue and what has to be done,” he says. “Hopefully other people will bring
more talent to us and help us put the money together. None of our organizers
will take a dime in pay. We do this because we care.”
Canada’s Department of Fisheries and Ocean’s has finally announced the protection of 8 new protected areas in Howe Sound British Columbia, that will protect 9 sponge reef sites. This announcement is the culmination of years of work on behalf of numerous individuals and organizations. This article will give a rough history of the process. It is the acknowledgement of an effort on behalf of numerous individuals and organizations that participated.
Very few individual/organizational efforts have resulted in
the creation of full ocean protections in Canada. The sponge reef protections
started because the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society recognized the
critical importance of these sponge reefs. They understood that they play a
hugely significant role in filtration of water, as well as providing a safe
habitat for fish and other species. Consequently CPAWS under Sabine Jessen’s
leadership set out on a path that would see protections given to a sponge reef
site by Haida Gwaii B.C.. Dr. Sally Ley from University of Alberta provided the
science used to establish the live sponge reef’s significance. It was this
effort that was leveraged by several organizations and individuals to start
dialogue on the same need for protections for the Howe Sound sponge reefs.
CPAWS was a leader in putting all of the concerned parties together to
strategize how this could happen.
Previous to their discovery Dr. Manfred Krautter had been
studying sponge reefs from fossilized remains in Germany. At that time science
only looked at the sponges as fossils. Dr. Bill Austin from Sydney B.C. was
amongst the first to realize that there were live sponge reefs that still
existed on the planet and he contacted Dr. Krautter. This was in the early days of live sponge reef
CPAWS recognized the significance of the sponge reefs off of
Haida Gwaii and consequently they started the effort that saw these reef sites
become the first of their kind to receive DFO protections. Sabine Jessen and
CPAWS set out on this campaign using a sponge specimen “Mr. Stinky” (the
sponges give off a strong odour) to promote the need for protections.
Meanwhile Glen Dennison and his regular dive team were
encountering sponge reefs in Howe Sound that were within air diving limits. It
became apparent early on that these reefs were extremely delicate and the dive
team would observe damage from fishing activities on the reefs. At the time Roy
Mulder (this author) was president of Marine Life Sanctuaries Society of BC
and Canadian Marine Environment Protection Society. Roy brought both
organizations into the mix of other’s interested and CPAWS worked on putting
together mass meetings of groups and individuals to discuss what could be done
to protect these sponges.
Glen through a massive citizen science effort using divers,
boats, data loggers, drop camera work, and created incredibly detailed charts
of the sponge reef sites. Any sites within air dive range were video recorded
by Roy and chart locations were done by Glen. In his efforts Glen discovered
numerous new reefs by going out on his boat with biologist assistants using his
sounder and drop camera. Through this work it became evident that there were
many more sites than were previously thought to exist in Howe Sound. Glen also consulted with Dr. Jeff Marliave
from Vancouver Aquarium to bring in a scientific component to his studies.
The first site to see protections was the Halkett reef site
which is part of BC Parks. It was the BC
divers that created the effort to see this site protected. While watching the sinking of the HMCS
Annapolis off of Gambier Island, Glen Dennison took the opportunity to bring
B.C, Member of Legislative Assembly Jordan Sturdy over to the sponge reef site
which was nearby. Partnering with MLSSBC M.L.A, Sturdy put an effort into
creating official protections which resulted in the Halkett sponge reef being
protected and the boundary of Halkett BC Park was extended to include the
sponge reef site.
Meanwhile the DFO meetings started up to put concerned
parties into the same room to discuss what it would mean to protect 9 sponge
reef sites in the Strait of Georgia. This resulted in a mass consultation with CMEPS,
First Nations, MLSSBC, Sunshine Coast Conservation Association, David Suzuki
Foundation, Vancouver Aquarium, CPAWS, DFO, Sports Fishing Advisory Board, commercial
fishers from the prawn industry, and numerous others. The largest challenge
revolved around what the fishing exclusion zone would look like. The fishing
industry was supporting a 50 meter/164 ft. limit, while the conservation
organizations were more in favour of a 150 M zone. It was the 150 M/492 ft.
zone that ended up becoming the standard distance. The net result of these
discussions is what resulted in the creation of 9 new fully protected sponge
reef sites in the Strait of Georgia.
Thanks to pressure from several organizations DFO was approachable in regards to extending protections to the sites that were known in Howe Sound. Thanks to Glen’s dive team and his mapping there was significant information available for DFO to use to truth the sites. A special dive team led by divers Hamish Tweed and Chris Straub ventured to over 73M/240 ft. on the Lions Bay sponge reef site. Thanks to support from articles by Larry Pynn from the Vancouver Sun, as well as other smaller publications like Lions Bay News and Squamish Chief public interest was growing. Meanwhile the lucky divers began a citizen science project led by Glen. This resulted in temperature data loggers put on sites by the dive team, while Glen would go out with an assistant every Saturday to do more comprehensive mapping and drop camera work. I took the lead on video production and produced the documentary Cradles of Glass to use in promotion for the need to protect the sponges.
This video was amongst some panel discussion/video screenings that were hosted by Vancouver Aquarium and David Suzuki Foundation. The public was clearly in support of protections for the sponges and ultimately it was this groundswell of support that provided the input for DFO to create the protections.
One of the most significant outcomes for divers as a result
of this whole process is a special PADI “Sponge Diver” specialty course offered
by Ocean Quest dive shop in Vancouver. Deirdre McCracken spearheaded this
course to ensure that divers visiting the sponge reefs had the necessary skills
to dive the reefs without damaging them. The glass sponges are incredibly delicate
and the slightest touch by a fin is enough to do damage. This means that diver’s
buoyancy and trim is a critical component of diving these reefs. Another
challenge to divers is the depths at which the sponges are found. Most of these
reefs start at 30M/98 ft. and can go down significantly deeper. The tech
specialists that were part of the deep water sponge sites had to be incredibly
well trained to visit these sites. The precision of these divers was a great
demonstration of mixed gas diving and complex decompression skills. Any
qualified divers interested in diving the Howe Sound sponge reefs can contact
local dive charters that frequent the sites. They truly are a wonder to behold
and are well worth the effort to pay them a visit.
There are numerous other sites still being studied in Howe
Sound and with the support of the dive and conservation community, we will
hopefully see several sites get some protections as well.
I would like to thank all of the individuals and organizations involved in creating the protections for the sponge reefs and I apologize if you were missed. This whole process demonstrated the critical role of conservationists and divers in the creation of protected areas. It was a group effort that resulted in this announcement by the Canadian Minister of Fisheries:
Crystal River Watersports received designation on February
11 as a Guardian Guide under a new program established by Save the Manatee Club
and the Manatee Ecotourism Association (META). The Guardian Guide program sets
principles to provide sustainable, world-class ecotourism opportunities for in-
and on-water visitors to Crystal River that promote stewardship of manatees,
their aquatic ecosystem and the surrounding spring shed.
Upon receiving the designation, Mike Engiles, Executive
Manager of Crystal River Watersports, said, “We are extremely proud to be one
of the first companies to adopt the standards and be
approved. We always strive to conduct our activities in an
environmentally friendly manner. This recognition by Save the
Manatee Club further solidifies Crystal River Watersports as a premiere
The Guardian Guide program requires tour operators to adhere
to the following principles:
Vary times and locations of tours to allow manatees the
ability to rest undisturbed
Require all swimmers to wear a wetsuit, utilize a flotation device and observe manatees only passively from a distance of at least one body length when possible
Have guides accompany guests during all tour segments while
captains remain aboard the vessel, with a guest-to-guide ratio not to exceed
Prevent over-crowding and manatee disturbance by avoiding
areas already in use by another tour group
Create stewardship among guests and the manatee ecotourism
community by encouraging guests to support manatee conservation efforts,
engaging guides in community service that benefits Kings Bay, and by donating
$1 from every guest to aquatic habitat protection and restoration within the
Crystal River Watersports has been adhering to many of the Principles of the Guardian Guide program for the last few years. The 2017-2018 manatee season was a probationary time for Save the Manatee Club to evaluate the program and ensure adherence to the principles.
Engiles said, “CRWS is continuing to emphasize a quality eco-tourism experience that conducts tours on the manatees’ terms to ensure their survival and the sustainability of the industry. Our family-owned and -operated business is committed to quality versus quantity.”
The Crystal River Watersports staff conducts and attends
training on manatee biology, physiology, and the recognition of illness and
injuries. The Captains and Guides assist with the identification and
documentation of ill manatees, their rescue, release, and the annual health
Donations have assisted with King’s Bay area cleanup as well
as youth education in environmental and marine science.
Crystal River Watersports is looking forward to a mutually beneficial partnership with Save the Manatee Club in support of our mutual goal of having all guests have a sustainable world-class eco-tourism experience that results in manatee and marine advocates.
my last article, I discussed the connection between carbon dioxide (CO2) and
the shells of the tiniest mollusks in the deepest ocean. The more I thought on
the subject, the more I realized I wanted to learn more about my ‘carbon
footprint,’ and its connection to our warming seas.
By Bonnie McKenna
concept of the name ‘carbon footprint’ originated from the term ‘ecological
footprint,’ which was developed by Willian E. Rees and Mathis Wackernagel in
the 1990s. The original footprint compared how much people demand as compared
to what the planet can renew. In 2007, the name ‘carbon footprint’ was first
used as a measure of carbon emissions when developing an energy plan for a city
in the state of Washington. Today, the term is focused on the gases that are
implicated as the cause of warming oceans and climate change.
of my research, and it is no means complete, comes through the world-wide-web; where
a plethora of information can be found. Unfortunately, not every source
includes the date of submission, but both www.eia.gov/energyexplained and www.epa.gov/ghgemissions have the
most current information and a number of links to follow if you are interested.
the total amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced directly or indirectly by
any activity to fulfill a human need that requires energy that emits CO2. A
‘carbon footprint’ is measured in tons of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) that is calculated
by multiplying the emissions of each of the GHGs by its 100-year global warming
Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is a natural, colorless and odorless GHG
that is emitted when fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, oil, coal, etc.) are burned.
CO2e allows other GHG emissions to be expressed in terms of CO2 based
on their relative global warming potential (GWP).
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
was developed to allow comparisons of the global warming impacts
of different gases. Specifically, it is a measure of how much energy the
emissions of 1 ton of a gas will absorb over a given period of time, relative
to the emissions of 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Many of the chemicals found in the earth’s
atmosphere act as GHGs. Interestingly, without naturally occurring GHGs,
the earth would be too cold to support life. The temperature would be approximately
-2F or -19C.
When sunlight strikes the earth, some of it
radiates back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation in a process called
radiative forcing. GHGs absorb this infrared radiation and trap its heat in the
atmosphere, creating what is termed the greenhouse effect. The result of this
effect is believed to lead to global warming and climate change.
The major GHGs that are included in U.S. and International
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) produced by burning fossil
fuels for energy.
Methane (CH4) comes from landfills, coal mines,
agriculture, oil, and natural gas operations.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) using nitrogen fertilizers,
waste management and burning fossil fuels.
Industrial gases are high GWP gases, which are
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3)
Other GHGs not counted by the U.S. include:
Ozone – technically a GHG because it has an
effect on global temperature, but at higher elevations in the atmosphere ozone blocks
ultraviolet light from reaching the earth’s surface.
Scientists know with certainty that increasing
GHG concentrations tend to warm the planet. The excess energy is absorbed by
the oceans. As the oceans warm up, sea levels rise because warmer water takes
up more room than cold water; not the melting ice caps.
divers, we have seen one of the most visually dramatic effects on the marine
ecosystem, coral bleaching; a stress response to warming ocean water
temperatures that can lead to coral death. Many marine species, including
plankton that forms the basis of the oceanic food chain for mollusks, corals,
fish, and indirectly polar bears, penguins, and sea birds are altered as the
species change location in search of ideal water temperature.
temperatures are also suspected of directly affecting the metabolism, life
cycle, and behavior of marine species. For many species, temperature
serves as a cue for reproduction.
affects the number of male and female offspring for marine turtles, as well as
some fish and copepods (tiny shrimp-like animals on which many other marine
animals feed). Changing climate could, therefore, skew sex ratios and threaten
waters could, therefore, be the knock-out punch for many species which are
already under stress from overfishing and habitat loss.
scientists feel the most significant climate change challenge is to mangrove ecosystems.
The amount of light reaching marine plants and algae dependent on
photosynthesis is affected by the rising sea temperatures and levels.
additional, but hidden consequence of the warming oceans is a multitude of
marine animals are being deprived of oxygen. Less obvious than rising seas and
coral bleaching – it is no less dangerous to marine life. According to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
seventy percent of the planet is being changed in invisible ways that will have
synergetic impacts on the marine ecosystems.
Just as humans have the power to wreak havoc with
marine life, we can also mitigate global warming by reducing greenhouse gas
emissions. Everyone can help slow global warming by reducing our ‘carbon
footprint.’ Power down, make little changes to reduce energy use – and carbon
John Tapley (JT): Larry, thank you for taking the time to speak
with us today. What was your inspiration for founding Project Komodo®?
Larry McKenna (LM): We’ve come to realize, while traveling around
the world, that oceans are sick and decaying. Our efforts to find ways to save
leatherback sea turtles from extinction have been successful, and having
completed this mission, we’ve recognized someone must step in and do whatever
it takes to bring the oceans back to a productive life.
JT: What are some factors affecting the environment you’d like to
share with us?
LM: This situation has been happening for approximately 45 years
and it’s important that people accept everyone on this planet has created this
problem in small and big ways. For all this time, people have carelessly thrown
around plastic, plastic bags, clothing, old fish nets, and just plain junk –
for the ocean to take it away and make it “disappear”.
People who live away from oceans toss their trash into the street
or into small waterways, it all finds its way to the ocean. In many locations
around the world, people pay trash collecting companies to take away their
garbage thinking it will be disposed of in a proper way: but in so many cases,
we’ve learned the trash is dumped into the ocean where nobody can see.
On a much larger scale, the huge manufacturing companies produce
everything in factories that process environmental poisons, which are put into
pipes and pushed out into the oceans: further compounding the pollution in our
seas. Chemical and petroleum industries are probably the worst offender, and
oceans are still trying to process the huge petroleum disaster in the Gulf of
Mexico. We estimate the heavy oil sitting on the bottom is destroying plants, fish,
shrimp, and lobsters. Some environmental experts estimate it may take up to 100
years to break down this layer of unrefined petroleum. A simpler, almost everyday
example– a white Styrofoam cup will
take about 50 years to dissolve.
LM: We selected then name to be symbolic of the eating habits of
the giant Komodo dragon, which lives in eastern Indonesia. The Komodo digests
everything and leaves absolutely nothing to give you the idea it had a meal: if
it catches a deer, there’s no bones, fur or teeth left; just a small pile of
We intend to develop new technology and re-design existing
technology to collect and dissolve the masses of junk floating around the
ocean: leaving nothing – no carbon footprint – in its wake.
JT: How much do you estimate the barge will cost and how will be
LM: Our first stage, the barge, and related research is budgeted
at $660,000. In past events our directors, out of pocket, funded what they
could. We have been financially assisted by a small cadre of supporters who
have given us the ability to develop the path to survive. This is a “must do”
project. Without financial help, we cannot
LM: Thank you, John. Our directors can easily be contacted at our
and www.11thhourheroes.org. Become a donor and get others to
donate now! We all caused this real, pending ocean disaster. Fix this mess
There is a no more significant group of ocean enthusiasts
than scuba divers. As I write this, there are divers out enjoying the bounty
and beauty of our oceans underwater; those very people are also seeing reef
destruction and diving with floating rubbish. It has happened to me, and I am
sure it has happened to you.
By Bonnie McKenna
We are also concerned with what is referred to as ‘ocean
acidification’ and ‘global warming,’ often spoken of as two separate entities. They
are different, but inexorability connected like everything is in this world. For
example, driving down a highway in any city in the world is related to the
strength of the shell of the tiniest mollusk at the bottom of the deepest
Not everyone believes in ‘ocean acidification,’ ‘global warming,’
or that we are doomed as a result. This article is not designed to make you
believe it or not; this is just a story and the science that makes connections.
In fact, most scientists, until this century did not give much credence to
these theories and many textbooks, still, have not corrected the science.
The earth has, in millennia past, gone through a period of
ocean acidification and global warming. Science knows that this occurred by a
natural phenomenon where an excessive amount of CO2 was released into the
atmosphere. They do not know what caused it, but they do know the results. It
is believed, that plants and animals, both land and sea, underwent massive
changes. Not overnight, but over thousands of years; those that could adapt
survived and flourished.
The latest study (2017), revealed global emissions from all
human activities will reach an all-time record of 45 billion tons of CO2. Even
though the ocean is immense, enough CO2 can have a significant impact by
dropping the pH of surface waters. A quick change in the chemistry of the ocean
does not give marine life, which evolved over millions of years, much time to
adapt. Scientists have been tracking the pH of the ocean for many years, but
biological studies only started recently.
The term “ocean acidification’ was coined in 2003 by two
climate scientists, Ken Calderia and Michael Wickett, working at the Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory in Northern California. Calderia said he chose
the term ‘ocean acidification’ for its shock value. Seawater is naturally
‘Ocean acidification’ is a consequence of excessive amounts
of carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in the ocean which, in turn, correlates to
the pH of seawater. The pH scale is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of
an aqueous solution. For science nerds, like me, it is approximately the
negative of the base 10 logarithms of the molar concentration, measured in
units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. The pH scale ranges from
0 to 14; 7 is neutral. The higher the pH (1-7), the more acidic; the converse
(7-14) is more alkaline. Seawater, normally alkaline, has a pH ranging from 7.8
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally in the air; plants need it
to grow, and animals exhale it when they breathe. Most of the CO2 collects in
the atmosphere, but approximately 30 percent of it dissolves in the ocean and then
it is released back into the atmosphere. This is known as the
Carbonate/Bicarbonate System or the Carbon Cycle; it is the ocean’s process of
When water (H2O) and CO2 mix, they form carbonic acid
(H2CO3) a relatively weak acid – we drink it in carbonated beverages. As with
all acids it breaks down to hydrogen (H) and carbonate (CO3) ions. More hydrogen
(H) ions are the clue to raising the pH of the water. This causes in fact, for
the seawater to become less alkaline not more acidic (pH less than 7).
Marine creatures that require calcium to build shells
(mollusks, crabs, lobsters, sea stars, urchins and corals) are especially
sensitive to a change in the pH of seawater. The calcium these animals use to
make their shells is derived from their environment either from the food they
eat or the water they dwell in. The shell is formed, repaired and maintained by
a part of the anatomy called the mantle. If the animal encounters harsh
conditions that limit its food supply, it can become dormant, or the mantle
ceases to produce the shell substance. The hydrogen (H) ions have a greater
affinity for the carbonate (CO3) ion than the weaker calcium (Ca) ion. If a
hydrogen ion bonds with a carbonate (HCO3) it prevents shell-building organisms
from extracting the carbonate (CO3) ion they need to bond with the calcium (Ca)
ion. With less calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
available the shell becomes less viable, can weaken and even dissolve.
The increased atmospheric CO2 as a result of burning fossil
fuels has driven this entire reaction to far to the right (less alkaline). The
result: ‘Ocean acidification.’
This brings us back to the example of how driving down the
highway with hot gases, CO2 and other pollutants spewing from the
exhaust pipe is connected to the strength of shells of not only
the tiniest mollusk in the deep ocean but all shell-building animals and
Thanks to the following:
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Smithsonian Ocean, April 2018
Deep Future, The Next 100,000 years of Life on Earth, Curt
Science still does not understand the life histories of most
marine animals, much less than their responses to chemical changes in seawater.
The challenge is to take a ‘giant step’ from shared knowledge to shared
responsibility on a global scale.
This article is the first part of a series covering a
controversial subject with a number of differing positions on the cause, effect,
and solutions to the red tide crisis.
Article by Selene Muldowney; photos from Mike Engiles
At first you are greeted with a stench – a stench that
tingles your nose as it spreads into your throat, a burning sensation griping
your now shallow breathing, your lungs filling with putrid particulates – then
your eyes gaze toward the red-brown, muddy waters and the shoreline littered
with rotting carcasses.
The normally clear waves along the Florida Gulf coast has
been plagued by toxic levels of a sea algae called Karenia brevis. These blooms
of algae, naturally occurring at low levels around the Gulf of Mexico fed by
nutrients from fertilizers, pesticides, wind, and ocean currents have washed
ashore and along Florida’s southwestern coastline. This phenomenon known as red
tide turns the beautiful crystal-clear waters near the shore into the murky
putrid mess encountered by aquatic animals and humans. This bloom first started
drifting toward the Gulf Coast of Florida sometime in October of 2017 with dire
consequence; leaving a trail of death killing fish, sea turtles, sharks,
whales, birds, invertebrates, and Manatees.
In addition to suffocating fish, the algae also confuses sea turtles and
kills manatees that mistakenly eat the contaminated sea grass. Birds that eat
contaminated prey also suffer.
There are a number of reasons the algae blooms develop and
have become as rampant and deadly as they have in recent years. These blooms have
been document around the Gulf of Mexico since anywhere between the 1500s to early
1700s and while its presence wax and wane, there is evidence to suggest the K.
brevis will grow faster as the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere
increase. This could lead to the conclusion, that in an age where the globe is
warming, algae bloom may become more potent.
To make matters worse, the inland waterways are clogged
with another bloom of vibrant green cyanobacteria. Runoff
from cattle/dairy farms and residential developments that lie north
of the state’s largest freshwater body, Lake Okeechobee, carries in nutrients,
turning its waters into a thick green smoothie. On the south of the lake
development and sugar cane farms prevent the natural trickling and filtering of
overflow through the Everglades which results in the release of the polluted
water into the estuaries that lead out to the sea. Worse yet, the problem
is mired in politics and the whodunnit syndrome.
The debate over cause seems endless as Floridians struggle
to cope with the ever-changing water conditions and casualties. Some have
posited the cause is human-made nutrients driving the algae blooms and removing
and/or requiring increased regulations from farming and other agricultural
developments will mitigate the introduction of these nutrients into the water.
Others posit the introduction of pesticides to alleviate the blooms is actually
accelerating the bloom’s growth. Global warming has also been cited as a
driving factor to the rise in harmful algae although human interference is
still questionable since in some locales many of the nutrients come from
natural resources and periodically the combination of winds and currents cause
the algae to bloom rapidly.
The Manatee dilemma
More than 6,300 manatees call Florida home which is an
impressive comeback since 1991 when there were 1,200 left. Sadly about 540
manatees have died this year with a number of them directly linked to the red
tide. Manatees suffer when they nibble on seagrass that’s been contaminated
with the algae. It produces a powerful brevetoxin that harms their central
nervous system. It is unclear if the brevetoxin kills the manatee or the dangerously
low oxygen levels produced by the algae.
Mike Englies, manatee tour operator of Crystal River Waterports and Manatee Eco Tourism Association (M.E.T.A.) president, has seen a number of changes in manatee conservation efforts. Established 19 years ago, Crystal River Watersports offers a full range of scuba dive training and local water tours with a focus on manatees. Engles purchased the business five years ago and operates four dive and tour boats daily stating,” Manatees have an international appeal and we regularly take tourists and divers out to see them, but we do not allow scuba diving when in proximity to the manatees. We strictly adhere to passive observation through snorkeling.”
His operation is 100 miles away from the red tide coastline
and while he has not seen direct consequences from the algae bloom he is very
aware of the dwindling numbers of manatees.
Engiles states, “Locally in Crystal River and Citrus County we did not experience any red tide. However, the manatees that winter here may have been in areas that were affected. Thoughts are that while the red tide increased mortality, it directly increased it by about 25%. Indirectly, there may be longer implications because rehab facilities are overwhelmed and there may be fewer spaces for winter cold stress related rescues. Unfortunately, there are limited resources and that impacts decisions on when to rescue vs nature taking its course.”
Engiles believes conservation is necessary regardless of how the manatees are dying. As a result, he and other manatee tour operators and conservation minded groups have joined in partnership to promote the wellbeing for the manatees. It took some time for these different businesses and organizations to work and develop a strategy toward a common interest. Both want to make sure eco-tourism is sustainable and to provide protection for the environment, namely the manatees. This partnership grew out of the work both conducted by M.E.T.A. and Save the Manatee Club.
The Manatee Eco Tourism Association (M.E.T.A.) is an
organization comprised of Crystal River businesses and organizations, which is
committed to responsible, safe interactions with manatees and their
environments. Association members pledge to uphold courtesy, cooperation, and
safety to visitors and fellow operators, and ensure manatees are observed
passively and peacefully.
Local M.E.T.A. manatee tours include Crystal River
Watersports, Crystal River Kayak Company & Dive Center, Birds Underwater,
and Manatee Tour and Dive.
M.E.T.A. has joined with Save the Manatee Club (SMC) of
Maitland, Florida to produce the Guardian Guides Stewardship Program: a series
of principles designed to promote manatee stewardship and the protection of
their ecosystem while opening safe, sustainable ecotourism opportunities. Under
the program, committed manatee tour operators must adjust their schedules to
allow manatees to rest, adhere to passive observation, limit tours to 12 or
fewer guests per guide, prevent overcrowding at viewing sites, and share
manatee and environmental stewardship to guests and guides.
In the last few weeks the Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission has announced that the Florida’s coastal waters are
entirely free of red tide algal blooms, according to the latest round of tests.
The Karenia Brevis algae that causes red tide was only observed in
four Southwest Florida water samples over the past week. It was not observed in
northwest Florida or along the east coast over the past week. It appears there
have been no additional casualties from the red tide. While this is good news
for beach goers it certainly is better new for the ocean residents whose brethren
have tide at the mercy of an algae bloom. The red tide is in remission for now
– some maps predict days while others predict weeks, but ultimately the
situation is far from over. The warm waters will once again caress the
shorelines and bring with the tide a resurgence of the deadly bloom … will
Florida be better prepared?
The topic of diving with cetaceans has many different aspects with varying points of view. This is my personal view as a diver of 43 years and a marine conservationist, not necessarily the view of the organizations I am part of. I write as someone who has experienced chance encounters only a couple of times while in the water, although I have seen them in the wild numerous times. It is difficult to express the feeling of surfacing from a dive and seeing large male orca dorsal fin go by right beside you. Better yet was being spy-hopped by a large male right next to the boat after taking off my tank. To this day I have to wonder if he was seeing if I was that diver he just saw next to him in the water.
There are two categories of interactions of divers and cetaceans, chance encounters and intentional ones. The latter brings up ethical considerations in regards to how invasive the interaction is. Rules on diving with cetaceans vary from countries that have or don’t have legislation on diving with cetaceans. Many countries have regulations on proximity to boats which often means that divers are dropped off in the paths of the cetaceans in the hopes of them swimming by. Some countries have regulations specifically banning being in the water with cetaceans. Often there are provisions in the laws to facilitate getting permits for scientific or documentary purposes. The benefits to view cetaceans in the wild are much more useful (than in captivity) to the scientists as they can observe natural behaviour. Any attempt at a wild encounter needs to be researched beforehand to see what the legal rules of engagement are. There are also voluntary suggested best practices in places that have yet to receive legal protections. This is why the best way to approach this is with local operators that are well versed in what is allowed and what is not. To risk an encounter without good knowledge of the risks is not recommended under any circumstances.
A good dive operator will recognize signs that the cetaceans are not willing to participate. Diving is often discouraged because blowing bubbles by divers can be interpreted as aggressive behaviour. Consequently many dive with dolphin encounters only allow snorkeling. Most charters will not stay for any long period of time and not push the animals. The good operators will build an educational experience for participants so that they can learn more about cetaceans. Baiting and touching are discouraged by operators that follow best practices for viewing cetaceans.
Diving does have inherent risks and it is always a good practice to investigate the reputation and experience of any charter organization that offers encounters. Many encounters are restricted to by snorkel only with no open or closed circuit dive systems allowed. Bubbles can be interpreted by cetaceans as aggressive behaviour, so diving is not always a good option, with the exception of using a reabreather. Reputable charter operators will be able to answer the needs for permits, rules of behaviour when diving, and provide rules of engagement. It is always important to remember diving with wild animals can be dangerous. It is usually prudent to discourage direct contact with the cetaceans.
These are incredibly intelligent creatures deserving of respect and given proper recognition of having priorities over human activities. Not all people are prepared for chance encounters and even those who do it out of love, still need to be conscious of the risks. The feeling of being in the water with cetaceans is one few get to experience and is deserving of doing it properly.
Is the Trustee of the World Cetacean Alliance and current President/Canadian Marine Environment Protections Society. You can find more info on their work : www.cmeps.webs.com. Mulder is also served as the past President of the Marine Life Sanctuaries Society of British Columbia and the past Vice President of the Underwater Council of British Columbia.
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